Redox imbalance in the brain significantly contributes to ischemic stroke pathogenesis, but antioxidant therapies have failed in clinical trials. Activation of endogenous defense mechanisms may provide better protection against stroke-induced oxidative injury. TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein) is an endogenous inhibitor of thioredoxin (TRX), a key antioxidant system. We hypothesize that TXNIP inhibition attenuates redox imbalance and inflammation and provides protection against a clinically relevant model of embolic stroke. Male TXNIP-knockout (TKO), wild-type (WT), and WT mice treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of TXNIP, resveratrol (RES; 5 mg/kg body weight), were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO). Behavior outcomes were monitored using neurological deficits score and grip strength meter at 24 h after eMCAO. Expression of oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic markers was analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and slot blot at 24 h post-eMCAO. Our result showed that ischemic injury increases TXNIP in WT mice and that RES inhibits TXNIP expression and protects the brain against ischemic damage. TKO and RES-treated mice exhibited a 39.26 and 41.11 % decrease in infarct size and improved neurological score and grip strength compared to WT mice after eMCAO. Furthermore, the levels of TRX, nitrotyrosine, NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP3), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and activations of caspase-1, caspase-3, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated in TKO and RES-treated mice. The present study suggests that TXNIP is contributing to acute ischemic stroke through redox imbalance and inflammasome activation and inhibition of TXNIP may provide a new target for therapeutic interventions. This study also affirms the importance of the antioxidant effect of RES on the TRX/TXNIP system.
- Embolic stroke
- Oxidative stress
- Thioredoxin-interacting protein
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience