TNF-α and IL-6 are associated with the deficit syndrome and negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia

David R. Goldsmith, Ebrahim Haroon, Andrew H. Miller, Gregory P. Strauss, Peter F. Buckley, Brian J. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations


Introduction: Increased inflammatory markers have been found in patients with chronic schizophrenia, and have been associated with negative symptoms. The deficit syndrome is a distinct subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by primary and enduring negative symptoms. Method: We measured inflammatory markers in patients with and without deficit schizophrenia and controls. Results: Using multivariate analyses, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 were associated with the deficit syndrome, and TNF-α predicted blunted affect, alogia, and total negative symptoms. Conclusions: Findings suggest that deficit schizophrenia subtype is associated with increased inflammation and immunotherapies may be a novel target for negative symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-284
Number of pages4
JournalSchizophrenia Research
StatePublished - Sep 2018



  • Cytokines
  • Deficit syndrome
  • Inflammation
  • Negative symptoms
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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