Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation of eNOS in the Endothelium

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical gas and these unique properties have been adapted for a surprising number of biological roles. In neurons, NO functions as a neurotransmitter; in immune cells, NO contributes to host defense; and in endothelial cells, NO is a major regulator of blood vessel homeostasis. In the vasculature, NO is synthesized on demand by a specific enzyme, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that is uniquely expressed in the endothelial cells that form the interface between the circulating blood and the various tissues of the body. NO regulates endothelial and blood vessel function via two distinct pathways, the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent signaling and the S-nitrosylation of proteins with reactive thiols (S-nitrosylation). The chemical properties of NO also serve to reduce oxidation and regulate mitochondrial function. Reduced synthesis and/or compromised biological activity of NO precede the development of cardiovascular disease and this has generated a high level of interest in the mechanisms controlling the synthesis and fate of NO in the endothelium. The amount of NO produced results from the expression level of eNOS, which is regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels as well as the acute posttranslational regulation of eNOS. The goal of this chapter is to highlight and integrate past and current knowledge of the mechanisms regulating eNOS expression in the endothelium and the posttranslational mechanisms regulating eNOS activity in both health and disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEndothelium, 2016
EditorsRaouf A. Khalil
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Pages29-64
Number of pages36
ISBN (Print)9780128043967
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2016

Publication series

NameAdvances in Pharmacology
Volume77
ISSN (Print)1054-3589
ISSN (Electronic)1557-8925

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Keywords

  • Endothelial
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase
  • Enzymology
  • Expression
  • NOSIII
  • Nitric oxide
  • Posttranslational regulation
  • eNOS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Fulton, D. J. R. (2016). Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation of eNOS in the Endothelium. In R. A. Khalil (Ed.), Endothelium, 2016 (pp. 29-64). (Advances in Pharmacology; Vol. 77). Academic Press Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2016.04.001