Treatment results and prognostic factors of advanced T3-4 laryngeal carcinoma: The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and Stanford University Hospital (SUH) experience

Phuc F. Nguyen-Tan, Quynh Thu Le, Jeanne Marie Quivey, Mark Singer, David J. Terris, Don R. Goffinet, Karen K. Fu

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72 Scopus citations


Purpose: To review the UCSF-SUH experience in the treatment of advanced T3-4 laryngeal carcinoma and to evaluate the different factors affecting locoregional control and survival. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 223 patients treated for T3-4 squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx between October 1, 1957, and December 1, 1999. There were 187 men and 36 women, with a median age of 60 years (range, 28-85 years). The primary site was glottic in 122 and supraglottic in 101 patients. We retrospectively staged the patients according to the 1997 AJCC staging system. One hundred and twenty-seven patients had T3 lesions, and 96 had T4 lesions; 132 had N0, 29 had N1, 45 had N2, and 17 had N3 disease. The overall stage was III in 93 and IV in 130 patients. Seventy-nine patients had cartilage involvement, and 144 did not. Surgery was the primary treatment modality in 161 patients, of which 134 had postoperative radiotherapy (RT), 11 had preoperative RT, 7 had surgery followed by RT and chemotherapy (CT), and 9 had surgery alone. Forty-one patients had RT alone, and 21 had CT with RT. Locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank statistics were employed to identify significant prognostic factors for OS and LRC. Results: The median follow-up was 41 months (range, 2-367 months) for all patients and 78 months (range, 6-332 months) for alive patients. The LRC rate was 69% at 5 years and 68% at 10 years. Eighty-four patients relapsed, of which 53 were locoregional failures. Significant prognostic factors for LRC on univariate analysis were primary site, N stage, overall stage, the lowest hemoglobin (Hgb) level during RT, and treatment modality. Favorable prognostic factors for LRC on multivariate analysis were lower N stage and primary surgery. The overall survival rate was 48% at 5 years and 34% at 10 years. Significant prognostic factors for OS on univariate analysis were: primary site, age, overall stage, T stage, N stage, lowest Hgb level during RT, and treatment modality. Favorable prognostic factors for OS on multivariate analysis were lower N stage and higher Hgb level during RT. Conclusion: Lower N-stage was a favorable prognostic factor for LRC and OS. Hgb levels ≥ 12.5 g/dL during RT was a favorable prognostic factor for OS. Surgery was a favorable prognostic factor for LRC but did not impact on OS. Correcting the Hbg level before and during treatment should be investigated in future clinical trials as a way of improving therapeutic outcome in patients with advanced laryngeal carcinomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1172-1180
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Aug 1 2001
Externally publishedYes



  • Advanced laryngeal carcinoma
  • Hemoglobin
  • Prognostic factors
  • Survival
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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