Intraluminal pathologic conditions of the bile ducts and gallbladder are common, most frequently consisting of calculi and adenocarcinoma. In recent years, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile ducts (IPN-B), which is analogous to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas, has been recognized as a distinct pathologic entity and a precursor lesion to adenocarcinoma of the bile ducts. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the bile duct was subsequently described as a distinct pathologic entity. With increased awareness and advances in imaging techniques, these lesions are diagnosed with increased frequency at preoperative imaging. A similar neoplasm in the gallbladder is referred to as intracholecystic papillary neoplasm. These lesions are often diagnosed at a preinvasive stage and have a better prognosis than invasive cholangiocarcinoma when treated with curative resection, underscoring the importance of an accurate imaging diagnosis. The most common causes of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterol polyps and adenomyomatosis. These lesions need to be differentiated from the less common but clinically important adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Imaging is crucial to identify polyps that are at high risk for malignancy so that the appropriate management choice between imaging follow-up and cholecystectomy can be made by the treating physicians. Other less common gallbladder tumors, such as gallbladder adenomas, lymphoma, and metastases to the gallbladder, can manifest as intraluminal tumors; and awareness of these lesions is also important. In this article, the recent literature is reviewed; and the imaging appearances, histopathologic findings, and management of uncommon intraluminal tumors of the bile ducts and gallbladder and their mimics are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging