Understanding HIV phenotypic resistance testing: Usefulness in managing treatment-experienced patients

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


This review discusses how "virtual" and conventional phenotypic assays establish clinical cutoffs predictive of response in HIV isolates from antiretroviral-experienced patients. Sophisticated phenotypic assays that incorporate linear regression modeling and conventional phenotypic assays have been used to define and validate clinical cutoffs (i.e. the correlation between viral susceptibility and treatment response) for most antiretrovirals, including the newer protease inhibitors. Using these clinical cutoff values, clinical data show that the newer protease inhibitors retain activity against the majority of isolates from treatment-experienced patients and from those with baseline resistance to multiple protease inhibitors. The utility of phenotypic resistance testing methods have therefore been validated in the clinical setting. In summary, HIV drug resistance testing is currently the recommended standard of care for the selection of antiretroviral regimens for HIV-infected patients in multiple clinical settings. An understanding of the basic principles of phenotypic resistance testing is crucial for providing optimal care, particularly for antiretroviral-experienced patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)223-230
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Darunavir
  • Genotype
  • HIV
  • Phenotype
  • Resistance
  • Tipranavir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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