Cancer patients are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection, especially in hospital settings with high TB/HIV burden. The study was implemented among adult patients admitted to the largest tertiary-level referral hospital in Botswana. We estimated the TB prevalence at admission and the rate of newly diagnosed TB after hospitalization in the medical and oncology wards, separately. Presumptive TB cases were identified at admission through symptom screening and underwent the diagnostic evaluation through GeneXpert. Patients with no evidence of TB were followed-up until TB diagnosis or the end of the study. In the medical and oncology wards, four of 867 admitted patients and two of 240 had laboratory-confirmed TB at admission (prevalence = 461.4 and 833.3 per 100,000, respectively.) The post-admission TB rate from the medical wards was 28.3 cases per 1,000 person-year during 424.5 follow-up years (post-admission TB rate among HIV-positive versus. -negative = 54.1 and 9.8 per 1,000 person-year, respectively [Rate Ratio = 5.5]). No post-admission TB case was detected from the oncology ward. High rates of undetected TB at admission at both medical and oncology wards, and high rate of newly diagnosed TB after admission at medical wards suggest that TB screening and diagnostic evaluation should target all patients admitted to a hospital in high-burden settings.
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