Unevenness of the Apical Constriction in Human Maxillary Central Incisors

David G. Olson, Steven Roberts, Anthony P. Joyce, D. Edward Collins, James C. McPherson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations


This study examined the incisoapical extent of the apical constriction in 45 human maxillary central incisors. The null hypothesis was that the apical constriction is a flat ring. Our working hypothesis was that the constriction is actually uneven or "skewed" as it traces a path around the circumference of the canal. Teeth were split and imaged with 25× magnification, and the most apical and coronal limits of the apical constriction were identified and measured. Analysis of the data indicates that a majority (>70%) of maxillary central incisors exhibit an unevenness or "skew" of the apical constriction of greater than 100 μm in the incisoapical dimension, with a maximum measured skew of 385 μm. On the basis of the results of this study, a statistically significant (P < .05) variation in the longitudinal position of the apical constriction around its circumference was confirmed in maxillary central incisors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-159
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2008


  • Apical constriction
  • apical foramen
  • root apex
  • skew
  • uneven

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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    Olson, D. G., Roberts, S., Joyce, A. P., Collins, D. E., & McPherson, J. C. (2008). Unevenness of the Apical Constriction in Human Maxillary Central Incisors. Journal of Endodontics, 34(2), 157-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2007.11.016