Use of ozone and fluidized-bed biofilters for increased ammonia removal and fish loading rates

Michael H Paller, William M. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations


A water reuse system incorporating ozonation and a fluidized-bed, granular carbon biofilter supported approximately six times more fish than a conventional system of identical size and flow rate that incorporated oxygenation and a fixed-bed gravel biofilter. Increasing the hydraulic loading rate to 44 mL/cm2-s in an upflow granular carbon biofilter caused the carbon particles to become suspended in upflow currents (fluidized) and tripled ammonia removal. Ozon- ating the water prior to sedimentation, physical filtration, and biofiltration also increased ammonia removal, by reducing organic matter concentrations and favoring the growth of nitrifying bacteria over heterotrophic bacteria in the biofilter. Ozonation directly reduced nitrite concentrations by oxidation, and it reduced turbidity. Ammonia removal per unit volume was a more useful criterion for evaluating fluidized-bed biofilters than ammonia removal per unit of substrate surface area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-147
Number of pages7
JournalProgressive Fish-Culturist
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1988


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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