Virtual Reality in Ophthalmology Training

Yousuf M. Khalifa, David Bogorad, Vincent Gibson, John Peifer, Julian Nussbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Current training models are limited by an unstructured curriculum, financial costs, human costs, and time constraints. With the newly mandated resident surgical competency, training programs are struggling to find viable methods of assessing and documenting the surgical skills of trainees. Virtual-reality technologies have been used for decades in flight simulation to train and assess competency, and there has been a recent push in surgical specialties to incorporate virtual-reality simulation into residency programs. These efforts have culminated in an FDA-approved carotid stenting simulator. What role virtual reality will play in the evolution of ophthalmology surgical curriculum is uncertain. The current apprentice system has served the art of surgery for over 100 years, and we foresee virtual reality working synergistically with our current curriculum modalities to streamline and enhance the resident's learning experience.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-273
Number of pages15
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2006


  • resident competencies
  • simulation
  • skill acquisition
  • surgical curriculum
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Virtual Reality in Ophthalmology Training'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this