White-Eyed Orbital Blowout Fracture with Oculocardiac Reflex Secondary to Extraocular Entrapment in a Pediatric Patient

Rushay Amarath-Madav, Daniel Adamkiewicz, Diana Bigler, Jack C. Yu, Maria Helena Lima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

White-eyed orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population can present with acute onset diplopia, ophthalmalgia, and abnormal duction. These findings are attributed to the tendency of younger bone to break and reapproximate owing to greater elasticity. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the greenstick fracture, increases the risk of entrapment of surrounding soft tissue structures in orbital floor fractures. Further concern arises in the presence of an oculocardiac reflex, which requires urgent intervention to prevent serious bradycardia. Prolonged entrapment can go unnoticed and result in irreversible ischemic damage to entrapped tissues. This case discusses the presentation 16-year-old female who sustained a left sided, white-eyed blowout fracture from a face-first ground level fall. On admission, she displayed restrictive strabismus and mild periorbital edema around the left eye. Vertical gaze was restricted when looking inferiorly on the affected side. With sustained upward gaze, her heart rate decreased from 99 to 81 beats per minute. High-resolution non-contrast computed tomography scans of the head showed entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle and periorbital fat. Liberation of entrapped tissues with reduction of bony segments was performed urgently, utilizing a MEDPOR® Titan 3D orbital floor plate and secured with two screws. The patient had an uneventful postoperative period and showed considerable improvements in periorbital edema, duction, and ophthalmalgia on the affected side. In addition, the oculocardiac reflex could no longer be elicited on prolonged upward gaze. Mild and improving paresthesia was noted in the maxillary distribution of the left trigeminal nerve. Sensory deficits like this are the result of fracture communication with the infraorbital canal, which may cause irritation of the infraorbital nerve responsible for sensation by the maxillary division. By postoperative week 7, she had complete resolution of periorbital edema, indiscernible duction abnormalities, and complete healing of surgical incision sites, and an oculocardiac reflex could not be elicited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E767-E771
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Volume33
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • globe trauma
  • inferior rectus entrapment
  • oculocardiac reflex
  • orbital floor fracture repair
  • pediatric
  • reconstruction
  • restrictive strabismus
  • white-eyed blowout fracture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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