Non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects an estimated 30,000 people each year in the United States, with an overall mortality of ∼30%. Most cases of SAH result from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, require long hospital stays, and result in significant disability and high fatality. Early brain injury (EBI) and delayed cerebral vasospasm (CV) have been implicated as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, necessitating intense focus on developing preclinical animal models that replicate clinical SAH complete with delayed CV. Despite the variety of animal models currently available, translation of findings from rodent models to clinical trials has proven especially difficult. While the explanation for this lack of translation is unclear, possibilities include the lack of standardized practices and poor replication of human pathophysiology, such as delayed cerebral vasospasmand ischemia, in rodentmodels of SAH. In this review, we summarize the different approaches to simulating SAH in rodents, in particular elucidating the key pathophysiology of the various methods and models. Ultimately, we suggest the development of standardized model of rodent SAH that better replicates human pathophysiology for moving forward with translational research.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience