A gene-environment interaction model of stress-induced hypertension

Ikhide G. Imumorin, Yanbin Dong, Haidong Zhu, Joseph C. Poole, Gregory A. Harshfield, Frank A. Treiber, Harold Snieder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

39 Scopus citations

Abstract

The case for a gene-environment interaction model of stress-induced hypertension is detailed in this paper. We hypothesize that repeated exposure to stress in combination with an environmentally and/or genetically mediated susceptibility may lead to the development of essential hypertension. Previously, we reviewed the evidence for a genetic influence on the two major intermediate phenotypes of our model: cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress and stress-induced sodium retention, representing the cardiovascular and renal stress response, respectively. Here we first describe how genes underlying the physiological systems mediating the stress response of heart, vasculature, and kidney (i.e., the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sodium reabsorption, and the endothelial system) may increase vulnerability to stress and confer susceptibility to development of essential hypertension. Next, we extend our model and review genes underlying three additional systems that may mediate the influence of stress on the development of essential hypertension: the parasympathetic nervous system, the serotonergic system, and the hypothamamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The elucidation of our gene-environment interaction model of stress-induced essential hypertension will improve the understanding of the contribution of stress to the development of essential hypertension. This knowledge may lead to more effective primary and secondary prevention programs involving lifestyle interventions in which the role of stress, both acute and chronic, will be taken into account, particularly for individuals at increased genetic risk of essential hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-132
Number of pages24
JournalCardiovascular Toxicology
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2005

Keywords

  • Essential hypertension
  • Gene-environment interaction
  • Genetics
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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  • Cite this

    Imumorin, I. G., Dong, Y., Zhu, H., Poole, J. C., Harshfield, G. A., Treiber, F. A., & Snieder, H. (2005). A gene-environment interaction model of stress-induced hypertension. Cardiovascular Toxicology, 5(2), 109-132. https://doi.org/10.1385/CT:5:2:109