Acute and Chronic Fluoride Toxicity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Compared with the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the frequency of fatalities stemming from the ingestion of fluoride compounds has declined dramatically. Since 1978, there have been four fatalities caused by the ingestion of fluoride, all in dental products. The numbers of exposures to fluoride doses that cause concern, however, has increased, as judged by the annual reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The number of reports made to poison control centers has increased from approximately 7700 in 1984 to 10,700 in 1989. Over 3700 persons have been treated in health care facilities for exposure to fluoride during this period, and there have been 133 cases for which the medical outcomes were classified as moderate or major. The sources of fluoride have been limited almost exclusively to fluoride-containing vitamins and dental products. Based on a review of the doses involved in the four fatalities, three of which involved young children, the “probably toxic dose” of fluoride has been set at 5 mg F/kg body weight. For children who are 6 years of age or less, the PTD can be found in single containers of several kinds of dental products. Recommendations that should reduce the frequency of over-exposures to fluoride are described. Regarding adverse effects due to the chronic intake of fluoride (excluding dental fluorosis), there is no evidence for risk in the US up to the level of intake that is associated with drinking water containing 4 ppm. This statement is based on 1990 or 1991 reports by the NY State Department of Health, the USPHS, and the National Cancer Institute. Two new reports, however, have implicated chronic fluoride intake at relatively low levels in a higher incidence of bone fractures. This relationship requires further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1249-1254
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Volume71
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992

Fingerprint

Fluorides
Poison Control Centers
Tooth
Eating
Dental Fluorosis
Annual Reports
United States Public Health Service
National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
Poisons
Health Facilities
Bone Fractures
Vitamins
Drinking Water
Body Weight
Delivery of Health Care
Incidence
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Acute and Chronic Fluoride Toxicity. / Whitford, Gary M.

In: Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 71, No. 5, 01.01.1992, p. 1249-1254.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{9eb4b95a5f8543f98f0b513b981424ad,
title = "Acute and Chronic Fluoride Toxicity",
abstract = "Compared with the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the frequency of fatalities stemming from the ingestion of fluoride compounds has declined dramatically. Since 1978, there have been four fatalities caused by the ingestion of fluoride, all in dental products. The numbers of exposures to fluoride doses that cause concern, however, has increased, as judged by the annual reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The number of reports made to poison control centers has increased from approximately 7700 in 1984 to 10,700 in 1989. Over 3700 persons have been treated in health care facilities for exposure to fluoride during this period, and there have been 133 cases for which the medical outcomes were classified as moderate or major. The sources of fluoride have been limited almost exclusively to fluoride-containing vitamins and dental products. Based on a review of the doses involved in the four fatalities, three of which involved young children, the “probably toxic dose” of fluoride has been set at 5 mg F/kg body weight. For children who are 6 years of age or less, the PTD can be found in single containers of several kinds of dental products. Recommendations that should reduce the frequency of over-exposures to fluoride are described. Regarding adverse effects due to the chronic intake of fluoride (excluding dental fluorosis), there is no evidence for risk in the US up to the level of intake that is associated with drinking water containing 4 ppm. This statement is based on 1990 or 1991 reports by the NY State Department of Health, the USPHS, and the National Cancer Institute. Two new reports, however, have implicated chronic fluoride intake at relatively low levels in a higher incidence of bone fractures. This relationship requires further study.",
author = "Whitford, {Gary M.}",
year = "1992",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/00220345920710051901",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "71",
pages = "1249--1254",
journal = "Journal of Dental Research",
issn = "0022-0345",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute and Chronic Fluoride Toxicity

AU - Whitford, Gary M.

PY - 1992/1/1

Y1 - 1992/1/1

N2 - Compared with the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the frequency of fatalities stemming from the ingestion of fluoride compounds has declined dramatically. Since 1978, there have been four fatalities caused by the ingestion of fluoride, all in dental products. The numbers of exposures to fluoride doses that cause concern, however, has increased, as judged by the annual reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The number of reports made to poison control centers has increased from approximately 7700 in 1984 to 10,700 in 1989. Over 3700 persons have been treated in health care facilities for exposure to fluoride during this period, and there have been 133 cases for which the medical outcomes were classified as moderate or major. The sources of fluoride have been limited almost exclusively to fluoride-containing vitamins and dental products. Based on a review of the doses involved in the four fatalities, three of which involved young children, the “probably toxic dose” of fluoride has been set at 5 mg F/kg body weight. For children who are 6 years of age or less, the PTD can be found in single containers of several kinds of dental products. Recommendations that should reduce the frequency of over-exposures to fluoride are described. Regarding adverse effects due to the chronic intake of fluoride (excluding dental fluorosis), there is no evidence for risk in the US up to the level of intake that is associated with drinking water containing 4 ppm. This statement is based on 1990 or 1991 reports by the NY State Department of Health, the USPHS, and the National Cancer Institute. Two new reports, however, have implicated chronic fluoride intake at relatively low levels in a higher incidence of bone fractures. This relationship requires further study.

AB - Compared with the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the frequency of fatalities stemming from the ingestion of fluoride compounds has declined dramatically. Since 1978, there have been four fatalities caused by the ingestion of fluoride, all in dental products. The numbers of exposures to fluoride doses that cause concern, however, has increased, as judged by the annual reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The number of reports made to poison control centers has increased from approximately 7700 in 1984 to 10,700 in 1989. Over 3700 persons have been treated in health care facilities for exposure to fluoride during this period, and there have been 133 cases for which the medical outcomes were classified as moderate or major. The sources of fluoride have been limited almost exclusively to fluoride-containing vitamins and dental products. Based on a review of the doses involved in the four fatalities, three of which involved young children, the “probably toxic dose” of fluoride has been set at 5 mg F/kg body weight. For children who are 6 years of age or less, the PTD can be found in single containers of several kinds of dental products. Recommendations that should reduce the frequency of over-exposures to fluoride are described. Regarding adverse effects due to the chronic intake of fluoride (excluding dental fluorosis), there is no evidence for risk in the US up to the level of intake that is associated with drinking water containing 4 ppm. This statement is based on 1990 or 1991 reports by the NY State Department of Health, the USPHS, and the National Cancer Institute. Two new reports, however, have implicated chronic fluoride intake at relatively low levels in a higher incidence of bone fractures. This relationship requires further study.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026858429&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026858429&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/00220345920710051901

DO - 10.1177/00220345920710051901

M3 - Article

VL - 71

SP - 1249

EP - 1254

JO - Journal of Dental Research

JF - Journal of Dental Research

SN - 0022-0345

IS - 5

ER -