Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an acute febrile illness that may be mistaken for an infectious pneumonia. Patients are often young and otherwise healthy. Clues in considering this disorder in a differential diagnosis include the acuity and severity of the clinical presentation and an initial chest X-ray with diffuse infiltrates, often interstitial, and the presence of Kerley B lines and/or evidence of pleural fluid. The diagnosis can be made through examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in most cases, with careful exclusion of other similar eosinophilic lung diseases. Although it can lead to life-threatening respiratory failure, AEP is easily treatable with corticosteroids. This disease has not been reported to recur in any patients to this point.
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