Adjunctive Minocycline in Clozapine-Treated Patients with Schizophrenia: Analyzing the Effects of Minocycline on Clozapine Plasma Levels

Heidi J. Wehring, Teresa Elsobky, Joseph Patrick McEvoy, Gopal Vyas, Charles M. Richardson, Robert P. McMahon, Bethany A. DiPaula, Fang Liu, Kelli Sullivan, Robert W. Buchanan, Stephanie Feldman, Elizabeth M. McMahon, Deanna L. Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Clozapine is the sole antipsychotic agent effective for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Sixty percent of clozapine-treated patients, however, fail to adequately respond. Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, possesses antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties that may play a role in schizophrenia. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2 enzymes, and minocycline may potentially inhibit CYP1A2 as hypothesized by case report data. To date, no pharmacokinetic interaction has been reported between minocycline and clozapine. This is a secondary analysis of a 10-week controlled study of adjunctive minocycline to clozapine in treatment refractory schizophrenia. Clozapine plasma levels were collected every two weeks during the study. 28 participants assigned to receive minocycline and 22 assigned to placebo were included. No differences existed in baseline demographics, clozapine dose or plasma levels. Average changes from baseline in clozapine plasma level (p = 0.033) were significantly higher in the minocycline group despite maintenance of stable doses. No statistically significant treatment differences were found in the norclozapine (p = 0.754) or total clozapine (p = 0.053) changes in plasma levels, although possible changes in total clozapine levels require further investigation. This analysis suggests that minocycline administration may lead to increased clozapine plasma levels. Further study is needed to examine possible explanations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-80
Number of pages8
JournalPsychiatric Quarterly
Volume89
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

Keywords

  • Clozapine
  • Drug interaction
  • Minocycline
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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    Wehring, H. J., Elsobky, T., McEvoy, J. P., Vyas, G., Richardson, C. M., McMahon, R. P., DiPaula, B. A., Liu, F., Sullivan, K., Buchanan, R. W., Feldman, S., McMahon, E. M., & Kelly, D. L. (2018). Adjunctive Minocycline in Clozapine-Treated Patients with Schizophrenia: Analyzing the Effects of Minocycline on Clozapine Plasma Levels. Psychiatric Quarterly, 89(1), 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11126-017-9515-x