Alterations of retinal vasculature in cystathionine-beta-synthase mutant mice, a model of hyperhomocysteinemia

Amany Tawfik, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Penny Roon, Srinivas Sonne, Jason A. Covar, Surapoon Matragoon, Preethi S. Ganapathy, Sally S. Atherton, Azza El-Remessy, Vadivel Ganapathy, Sylvia B. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose. Mice with moderate/severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to deficiency or absence of the cbs gene encoding cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) have marked retinal disruption, ganglion cell loss, optic nerve mitochondrial dysfunction, and ERG defects; those with mild hyperhomocysteinemia have delayed retinal morphological/functional phenotype. Excess homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, it is not known whether excess homocysteine alters retinal vasculature. Methods. Cbs+/+, cbs+/-, and cbs-/- mice (age ~3 weeks) were subjected to angiography; retinas were harvested for cryosections, flat-mount preparations, or trypsin digestion and subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize vessels using isolectin-B4, to detect angiogenesis using anti-VEGF and anti-endoglin (anti-CD105) and activated glial cells (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein [anti-GFAP]) and to investigate the blood-retinal barrier using the tight junction markers zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. Expression of vegf was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were treated with excess homocysteine to analyze permeability. Results. Angiography revealed vascular leakage in cbs-/- mice; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated vascular patterns consistent with ischemia; isolectin-B4 labeling revealed a capillary-free zone centrally and new vessels with capillary tufts midperipherally. This was associated with increased vegf mRNA and protein, CD105, and GFAP in cbs-/- retinas concomitant with a marked decrease in ZO-1 and occludin. Homocysteine-treated HRECs showed increased permeability. Conclusions. Severe elevation of homocysteine in cbs-/- mutant mice is accompanied by alterations in retinal vasculature (ischemia, neovascularization, and incompetent blood-retinal barrier). The marked disruption of retinal structure and decreased visual function reported in cbs-/- mice may reflect vasculopathy as well as neuropathy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)939-949
Number of pages11
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume54
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013

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Cystathionine beta-Synthase
Hyperhomocysteinemia
Homocysteine
Tight Junctions
Blood-Retinal Barrier
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Occludin
Lectins
Blood Vessels
Retina
Permeability
Angiography
Ischemia
Endothelial Cells
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Optic Nerve
Fluorescence Microscopy
Immunoblotting
Neuroglia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Alterations of retinal vasculature in cystathionine-beta-synthase mutant mice, a model of hyperhomocysteinemia. / Tawfik, Amany; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Roon, Penny; Sonne, Srinivas; Covar, Jason A.; Matragoon, Surapoon; Ganapathy, Preethi S.; Atherton, Sally S.; El-Remessy, Azza; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 54, No. 2, 01.02.2013, p. 939-949.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tawfik, Amany ; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed ; Roon, Penny ; Sonne, Srinivas ; Covar, Jason A. ; Matragoon, Surapoon ; Ganapathy, Preethi S. ; Atherton, Sally S. ; El-Remessy, Azza ; Ganapathy, Vadivel ; Smith, Sylvia B. / Alterations of retinal vasculature in cystathionine-beta-synthase mutant mice, a model of hyperhomocysteinemia. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2013 ; Vol. 54, No. 2. pp. 939-949.
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abstract = "Purpose. Mice with moderate/severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to deficiency or absence of the cbs gene encoding cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) have marked retinal disruption, ganglion cell loss, optic nerve mitochondrial dysfunction, and ERG defects; those with mild hyperhomocysteinemia have delayed retinal morphological/functional phenotype. Excess homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, it is not known whether excess homocysteine alters retinal vasculature. Methods. Cbs+/+, cbs+/-, and cbs-/- mice (age ~3 weeks) were subjected to angiography; retinas were harvested for cryosections, flat-mount preparations, or trypsin digestion and subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize vessels using isolectin-B4, to detect angiogenesis using anti-VEGF and anti-endoglin (anti-CD105) and activated glial cells (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein [anti-GFAP]) and to investigate the blood-retinal barrier using the tight junction markers zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. Expression of vegf was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were treated with excess homocysteine to analyze permeability. Results. Angiography revealed vascular leakage in cbs-/- mice; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated vascular patterns consistent with ischemia; isolectin-B4 labeling revealed a capillary-free zone centrally and new vessels with capillary tufts midperipherally. This was associated with increased vegf mRNA and protein, CD105, and GFAP in cbs-/- retinas concomitant with a marked decrease in ZO-1 and occludin. Homocysteine-treated HRECs showed increased permeability. Conclusions. Severe elevation of homocysteine in cbs-/- mutant mice is accompanied by alterations in retinal vasculature (ischemia, neovascularization, and incompetent blood-retinal barrier). The marked disruption of retinal structure and decreased visual function reported in cbs-/- mice may reflect vasculopathy as well as neuropathy.",
author = "Amany Tawfik and Mohamed Al-Shabrawey and Penny Roon and Srinivas Sonne and Covar, {Jason A.} and Surapoon Matragoon and Ganapathy, {Preethi S.} and Atherton, {Sally S.} and Azza El-Remessy and Vadivel Ganapathy and Smith, {Sylvia B.}",
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T1 - Alterations of retinal vasculature in cystathionine-beta-synthase mutant mice, a model of hyperhomocysteinemia

AU - Tawfik, Amany

AU - Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed

AU - Roon, Penny

AU - Sonne, Srinivas

AU - Covar, Jason A.

AU - Matragoon, Surapoon

AU - Ganapathy, Preethi S.

AU - Atherton, Sally S.

AU - El-Remessy, Azza

AU - Ganapathy, Vadivel

AU - Smith, Sylvia B.

PY - 2013/2/1

Y1 - 2013/2/1

N2 - Purpose. Mice with moderate/severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to deficiency or absence of the cbs gene encoding cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) have marked retinal disruption, ganglion cell loss, optic nerve mitochondrial dysfunction, and ERG defects; those with mild hyperhomocysteinemia have delayed retinal morphological/functional phenotype. Excess homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, it is not known whether excess homocysteine alters retinal vasculature. Methods. Cbs+/+, cbs+/-, and cbs-/- mice (age ~3 weeks) were subjected to angiography; retinas were harvested for cryosections, flat-mount preparations, or trypsin digestion and subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize vessels using isolectin-B4, to detect angiogenesis using anti-VEGF and anti-endoglin (anti-CD105) and activated glial cells (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein [anti-GFAP]) and to investigate the blood-retinal barrier using the tight junction markers zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. Expression of vegf was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were treated with excess homocysteine to analyze permeability. Results. Angiography revealed vascular leakage in cbs-/- mice; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated vascular patterns consistent with ischemia; isolectin-B4 labeling revealed a capillary-free zone centrally and new vessels with capillary tufts midperipherally. This was associated with increased vegf mRNA and protein, CD105, and GFAP in cbs-/- retinas concomitant with a marked decrease in ZO-1 and occludin. Homocysteine-treated HRECs showed increased permeability. Conclusions. Severe elevation of homocysteine in cbs-/- mutant mice is accompanied by alterations in retinal vasculature (ischemia, neovascularization, and incompetent blood-retinal barrier). The marked disruption of retinal structure and decreased visual function reported in cbs-/- mice may reflect vasculopathy as well as neuropathy.

AB - Purpose. Mice with moderate/severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to deficiency or absence of the cbs gene encoding cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) have marked retinal disruption, ganglion cell loss, optic nerve mitochondrial dysfunction, and ERG defects; those with mild hyperhomocysteinemia have delayed retinal morphological/functional phenotype. Excess homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, it is not known whether excess homocysteine alters retinal vasculature. Methods. Cbs+/+, cbs+/-, and cbs-/- mice (age ~3 weeks) were subjected to angiography; retinas were harvested for cryosections, flat-mount preparations, or trypsin digestion and subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize vessels using isolectin-B4, to detect angiogenesis using anti-VEGF and anti-endoglin (anti-CD105) and activated glial cells (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein [anti-GFAP]) and to investigate the blood-retinal barrier using the tight junction markers zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin. Expression of vegf was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were treated with excess homocysteine to analyze permeability. Results. Angiography revealed vascular leakage in cbs-/- mice; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated vascular patterns consistent with ischemia; isolectin-B4 labeling revealed a capillary-free zone centrally and new vessels with capillary tufts midperipherally. This was associated with increased vegf mRNA and protein, CD105, and GFAP in cbs-/- retinas concomitant with a marked decrease in ZO-1 and occludin. Homocysteine-treated HRECs showed increased permeability. Conclusions. Severe elevation of homocysteine in cbs-/- mutant mice is accompanied by alterations in retinal vasculature (ischemia, neovascularization, and incompetent blood-retinal barrier). The marked disruption of retinal structure and decreased visual function reported in cbs-/- mice may reflect vasculopathy as well as neuropathy.

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