Purpose: We determined the incidence and predisposing factors of bacteremia and bacteriuria after prostate biopsy with specific emphasis on the value of a pre-biopsy enema. Materials and Methods: We randomized 50 men undergoing ultrasound and biopsy to rule out prostate cancer to receive a preoperative (25) or no (25) enema. Preoperatively urine was obtained for culture, and questionnaires regarding urological history and voiding symptoms were completed. The initial prostate biopsy, biopsy needle, and postoperative urine and blood specimens were cultured. The following day a symptom questionnaire was completed. Results: Bacterial growth in post-procedure cultures did not correlate with the number of biopsies, prostate specific antigen, obstructive voiding symptoms, prostate volume, cancer or post-biopsy hematuria. Bacteriuria was noted in 44% of the cases and bacteremia was present in 16% of the patients, of whom 87.5% did not receive an enema (p = 0.0003). Only 1 patient had chills and fever greater than 37.5C, requiring additional antibiotics. On the followup questionnaire 12% of patients described dysuria, including 84% with bacteriuria after biopsy. Conclusions: Bacteremia and bacteriuria after multiple biopsies are common but usually asymptomatic. Bacteria is apparently introduced into the urine and/or blood from the rectum via the biopsy needle, which may be minimized by a pre-biopsy enema. Dysuria or a history of urinary tract infection did not predict problems after biopsy.
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