Angiogenesis, disruption of the retinal barrier, leukocyte-adhesion and oedema are cardinal signs of proliferative retinopathies that are associated with vision loss. Therefore, identifying factors that regulate these vascular dysfunctions is critical to target pathological angiogenesis. Given the conflicting role of bioactive lipids reported in the current literature, the goal of this review is to provide the reader a clear road map of what has been accomplished so far in the field with specific focus on the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)-derived metabolites in proliferative retinopathies. This necessarily entails a description of the different retina cells, blood retina barriers and the role of (PUFAs)-derived metabolites in diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age-related macular degeneration as the most common types of proliferative retinopathies.
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