Increasingly higher concentrations of Phenyl-P in 30% HEMA were used as dentin conditioners to improve the bonding of adhesive resins to smear layers. The maximum bond strength (10.4 MPa) was obtained at a concentration of 20% Phenyl-P. Transmission electron microscopy of fractured, lightly smeared, and compactly smeared dentin demonstrated that 20% Phenyl-P in 30% HEMA demineralized the dentin surface by partially dissolving mineral crystals from around collagen. When applied to smear layers, this resin system demineralized the smear layer and incorporated it into the applied resin which penetrated a short distance into the underlying dentin, thereby creating a hybrid layer that contained the original smear layer. This single-step conditioner/primer offers several advantages over previous bonding systems by permitting a single solution to serve as both a conditioner and a primer.
- Smear Layer
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