Caloric restriction decreases cortical bone mass but spares trabecular bone in the mouse skeleton

Implications for the regulation of bone mass by body weight

Mark W Hamrick, Kehong Ding, Sumant Ponnala, Serge L. Ferrari, Carlos M Isales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Body weight is positively correlated with bone mass and density, and both muscle mass and body fat are thought to play a role in regulating bone metabolism. We examined bone metabolism in calorically restricted mice to determine how alterations in soft tissue mass affect bone mass, density, and strength. Materials and Methods: Caloric restriction (CR) was initiated in male mice at 14 wk of age at 10% restriction, increased to 25% restriction at 15 wk, and then increased to 40% restriction at 16 wk, where it was maintained until 24 wk of age when the study was terminated. Control mice were fed ad libitum (AL). Body composition, BMD, and BMC were measured by DXA, BMD and BMC in the femoral metaphysis were measured by pQCT, femora were tested in three-point bending, serum leptin and IGF-1 were measured using immunoassay, and osteoblast and osteoclast numbers were determined using histomorphometry. Results: Body weight, lean mass, fat mass, percent body fat, serum leptin, and serum IGF-1 were all significantly lower in CR mice than AL mice. Whole body BMC and BMD did not differ significantly between the two groups. Femur BMC, BMD, cortical thickness, and fracture strength decreased significantly in CR mice, but trabecular bone volume fraction in the femur did not change with food restriction. Vertebral cortical thickness also decreased with caloric restriction, whereas spine BMC, BMD, and trabecular bone volume fraction were significantly increased with caloric restriction. Conclusions: Caloric restriction and its related weight reduction are associated with marked decreases in lean mass, fat mass, serum leptin and IGF-1, and cortical bone mass. Consistent with the opposite effects of leptin on cortical and cancellous bone, trabecular bone mass is spared during food restriction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)870-878
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume23
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2008

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Caloric Restriction
Skeleton
Body Weight
Leptin
Bone and Bones
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Femur
Serum
Bone Density
Adipose Tissue
Fats
Food
Osteoclasts
Thigh
Body Composition
Osteoblasts
Immunoassay
Cortical Bone
Cancellous Bone
Weight Loss

Keywords

  • BMD
  • Body composition
  • Leptin
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Caloric restriction decreases cortical bone mass but spares trabecular bone in the mouse skeleton: Implications for the regulation of bone mass by body weight",
abstract = "Introduction: Body weight is positively correlated with bone mass and density, and both muscle mass and body fat are thought to play a role in regulating bone metabolism. We examined bone metabolism in calorically restricted mice to determine how alterations in soft tissue mass affect bone mass, density, and strength. Materials and Methods: Caloric restriction (CR) was initiated in male mice at 14 wk of age at 10{\%} restriction, increased to 25{\%} restriction at 15 wk, and then increased to 40{\%} restriction at 16 wk, where it was maintained until 24 wk of age when the study was terminated. Control mice were fed ad libitum (AL). Body composition, BMD, and BMC were measured by DXA, BMD and BMC in the femoral metaphysis were measured by pQCT, femora were tested in three-point bending, serum leptin and IGF-1 were measured using immunoassay, and osteoblast and osteoclast numbers were determined using histomorphometry. Results: Body weight, lean mass, fat mass, percent body fat, serum leptin, and serum IGF-1 were all significantly lower in CR mice than AL mice. Whole body BMC and BMD did not differ significantly between the two groups. Femur BMC, BMD, cortical thickness, and fracture strength decreased significantly in CR mice, but trabecular bone volume fraction in the femur did not change with food restriction. Vertebral cortical thickness also decreased with caloric restriction, whereas spine BMC, BMD, and trabecular bone volume fraction were significantly increased with caloric restriction. Conclusions: Caloric restriction and its related weight reduction are associated with marked decreases in lean mass, fat mass, serum leptin and IGF-1, and cortical bone mass. Consistent with the opposite effects of leptin on cortical and cancellous bone, trabecular bone mass is spared during food restriction.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Caloric restriction decreases cortical bone mass but spares trabecular bone in the mouse skeleton

T2 - Implications for the regulation of bone mass by body weight

AU - Hamrick, Mark W

AU - Ding, Kehong

AU - Ponnala, Sumant

AU - Ferrari, Serge L.

AU - Isales, Carlos M

PY - 2008/6/1

Y1 - 2008/6/1

N2 - Introduction: Body weight is positively correlated with bone mass and density, and both muscle mass and body fat are thought to play a role in regulating bone metabolism. We examined bone metabolism in calorically restricted mice to determine how alterations in soft tissue mass affect bone mass, density, and strength. Materials and Methods: Caloric restriction (CR) was initiated in male mice at 14 wk of age at 10% restriction, increased to 25% restriction at 15 wk, and then increased to 40% restriction at 16 wk, where it was maintained until 24 wk of age when the study was terminated. Control mice were fed ad libitum (AL). Body composition, BMD, and BMC were measured by DXA, BMD and BMC in the femoral metaphysis were measured by pQCT, femora were tested in three-point bending, serum leptin and IGF-1 were measured using immunoassay, and osteoblast and osteoclast numbers were determined using histomorphometry. Results: Body weight, lean mass, fat mass, percent body fat, serum leptin, and serum IGF-1 were all significantly lower in CR mice than AL mice. Whole body BMC and BMD did not differ significantly between the two groups. Femur BMC, BMD, cortical thickness, and fracture strength decreased significantly in CR mice, but trabecular bone volume fraction in the femur did not change with food restriction. Vertebral cortical thickness also decreased with caloric restriction, whereas spine BMC, BMD, and trabecular bone volume fraction were significantly increased with caloric restriction. Conclusions: Caloric restriction and its related weight reduction are associated with marked decreases in lean mass, fat mass, serum leptin and IGF-1, and cortical bone mass. Consistent with the opposite effects of leptin on cortical and cancellous bone, trabecular bone mass is spared during food restriction.

AB - Introduction: Body weight is positively correlated with bone mass and density, and both muscle mass and body fat are thought to play a role in regulating bone metabolism. We examined bone metabolism in calorically restricted mice to determine how alterations in soft tissue mass affect bone mass, density, and strength. Materials and Methods: Caloric restriction (CR) was initiated in male mice at 14 wk of age at 10% restriction, increased to 25% restriction at 15 wk, and then increased to 40% restriction at 16 wk, where it was maintained until 24 wk of age when the study was terminated. Control mice were fed ad libitum (AL). Body composition, BMD, and BMC were measured by DXA, BMD and BMC in the femoral metaphysis were measured by pQCT, femora were tested in three-point bending, serum leptin and IGF-1 were measured using immunoassay, and osteoblast and osteoclast numbers were determined using histomorphometry. Results: Body weight, lean mass, fat mass, percent body fat, serum leptin, and serum IGF-1 were all significantly lower in CR mice than AL mice. Whole body BMC and BMD did not differ significantly between the two groups. Femur BMC, BMD, cortical thickness, and fracture strength decreased significantly in CR mice, but trabecular bone volume fraction in the femur did not change with food restriction. Vertebral cortical thickness also decreased with caloric restriction, whereas spine BMC, BMD, and trabecular bone volume fraction were significantly increased with caloric restriction. Conclusions: Caloric restriction and its related weight reduction are associated with marked decreases in lean mass, fat mass, serum leptin and IGF-1, and cortical bone mass. Consistent with the opposite effects of leptin on cortical and cancellous bone, trabecular bone mass is spared during food restriction.

KW - BMD

KW - Body composition

KW - Leptin

KW - Weight loss

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DO - 10.1359/jbmr.080213

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SN - 0884-0431

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