This chapter addresses three aspects of PKG function that include the role of PKG-I targeting to subcellular proteins especially in smooth muscle cells (SMC), the role of PKG-I in regulating vascular SMC (VSMC) gene expression, and the regulation of the expression of PKG-I. The serum response factor (SRF) interacts with numerous co-transcriptional regulators, including myocardin, a smooth muscle specific co-transcription factor and member of the larger myocardin-related factor (MRF) family of proteins. PKG-I enhances myocardin-stimulated SRF activity in part through the phosphorylation of a myocardin regulatory protein, cysteine-rich protein-2 (CRP-2) in VSMC. The enhanced myocardin-dependent SRF activity in a non-smooth muscle cell line is observed, when it is transfected with myocardin and PKG-I cDNA. PKG-I also increases SRF binding to smooth muscle-specific promoter regions of SMMHC and SM22. The Kruppel-like factor (KLF-4) binds to the Sp1 sites on the PKG-I proximal promoter and regulates gene transcription. The small molecular weight G proteins, RhoA and rac, regulate KLF-4 binding and PKG-I gene expression. The inflammatory, atherogenic cytokines such as IL-1? and TNFα decrease PKG-I mRNA and protein levels in bovine aortic VSMC. One mechanism responsible for this event is a cytokine-dependent increase in iNOS expression, NO biosynthesis, and a decrease in Sp1 binding to the PKG-I promoter. Suppression of iNOS activity or sGC activity inhibits the downregulation of PKG-I mRNA induced by the cytokines. PKA inhibition also suppresses the effects of cytokines on PKG-I mRNA expression, suggesting that high elevations in cGMP in response to iNOS expression cross-activate PKA and lead to decreased Sp1 protein binding to the PKG-I promoter.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Handbook of Cell Signaling, 2/e|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)