Development and initial validation of the Multicultural Training and Education Questionnaire.

Melanie M. Wilcox, Michael M. Gale, Kristin L. McLaughlin, Emily Squyres, Emily C. Burish, Jam Khojasteh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Given the importance of culturally sensitive psychotherapy, it is necessary to identify training and education elements that foster the development of multicultural competence and multicultural orientation among trainees. Thus, in this article, we describe the development and initial validation of the Multicultural Training and Education Questionnaire (MTEQ). After generating an initial 98 items which underwent expert review, the preliminary measure was administered to a sample (N = 582) of psychotherapy trainees (n = 408) and professionals (n = 174). Exploratory factor analyses suggested that a one-, two-, three-, or four-factor structure best fit the data. Subsequently and based on the preliminary analyses, 38 of the original 98 items were administered to a second sample (N = 336) of trainees (n = 284) and professionals (n = 52). Participants (n = 269) additionally completed the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale, the Colorblind Racial Attitudes Scales, and the Research Training Environment Scale—Revised—Short Form. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional latent factor structure for Multicultural Training and Education as well as four subscales: Importance of Modeling, Clinical Application, Self-Exploration/Awareness, and Education and Knowledge. The MTEQ further demonstrated good internal consistency as well as divergent and convergent validity. Thus, our results suggest that the MTEQ offers a viable way to operationalize and measure multicultural education and training. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. Public Significance Statement: This article describes the development of a new measure, the Multicultural Training and Education Questionnaire, which represents advancement in multicultural training measurement that may help elucidate training mechanisms by which to foster therapists’ multicultural competence and multicultural orientation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTraining and Education in Professional Psychology
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • multicultural
  • multicultural training
  • scale development
  • supervision and training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Psychology(all)


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