Type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia oftentimes present in combination. However, the relative roles of diabetes and diet-induced dyslipidemia in mediating changes in vascular structure, mechanics, and function are poorly understood. Our hypothesis was that addition of a high-fat diet would exacerbate small artery remodeling, compliance, and vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Vascular remodeling indices [media/lumen (M/L) ratio, collagen abundance and turnover, and matrix me- talloproteinase dynamics], mechanical properties (vessel stiffness), and reactivity to pressure and vasoactive factors were measured in third-order mesenteric arteries in control Wistar and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats fed either a regular or high-fat diet. M/L ratios, total collagen, and myogenic tone were increased in diabetes. Addition of the high-fat diet altered collagen patterns (mature versus new collagen) in favor of matrix accumulation. Addition of a high-fat diet caused increased constriction to endothelin-1 (0.1-100 nM), showed impaired vasorelaxation to both acetylcholine (0.1 nM-1 μM) and sodium nitroprusside (0.1 nM-1 μM), and increased cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes. These results suggest that moderate elevations in blood glucose, as seen in our lean GK model of type 2 diabetes, promote resistance artery remodeling resulting in increased medial thickness, whereas addition of a high-fat diet contributes to diabetic vascular disease predominantly by impairing vascular reactivity in the time frame used for this study. Although differential in their vascular effects, both hyperglycemia and diet-induced dyslipidemia need to be targeted for effective prevention and treatment of diabetic vascular disease.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Jan 2009|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine