Dissecting the role of radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in post-operative complications: an analysis using the American College of Surgeons national surgical quality improvement program database

James Anaissie, Furkan Dursun, Christopher J.D. Wallis, Zachary Klaassen, Jennifer Taylor, Cinthya Obando-Perez, Jiaqiong Xu, Timothy Boone, Rose Khavari, Raj Satkunasivam

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Abstract

Objective: To characterize the contribution of the extirpative and reconstructive portions of radical cystectomy (RC) to complications rates, and assess differences between urinary diversion (UD) types. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing patients undergoing UD alone or RC+UD for bladder cancer from 2006 to 2017 using ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. The primary outcome was major complications, while secondary outcomes included minor complications and prolonged length of stay. Propensity score matching (PSM) was utilized to assess the association between surgical procedure (UD alone or RC+UD) and outcomes, stratified by diversion type. Lastly, we examined differences in complication rates between ileal conduit (IC) vs. continent UD (CUD). Results: When comparing RC + IC and IC alone, PSM yielded 424 pairs. IC alone had a lower risk of any complication (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.75), venous thromboembolism (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.91) and bleeding needing transfusion (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.320.52). This trend was also noted when comparing RC + CUD to CUD alone. CUD had higher risk of complications than IC, both with (56.6% vs 52.3%, p = 0.031) and without RC (47.8% vs 35.1%, p=0.062), and a higher risk of infectious complications, both with (30.5% vs 22.7%, p<0.001) and without RC (34.0% vs 22.0%, p=0.032). Conclusions: RC+UD, as compared to UD alone, is associated with an increased risk of major complications, including bleeding needing transfusion and venous thromboembolism. Additionally, CUD had a higher risk of post-operative complication than IC.

Keywords

  • Cystectomy
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • Urinary Diversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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