Given that endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, exploring the parameters that modify postprandial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is important for public health. The objectives of the study are to estimate the population effect of meal ingestion on FMD and to determine how the effect varied based on patient characteristics and modifiable methodological features. Articles published before June 2015 were located using MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science. One hundred fifty-four effects were derived from 78 articles involving 2,548 subjects were selected. Included articles required measurement of FMD in adults before and after meal ingestion. Effects were analysed using an unstandardized mean gain random effects model, and significant moderators were analysed using meta-regression. Meal consumption significantly reduced FMD by a heterogeneous mean effect size delta (Δ) of -2.03 (95% CI: [-2.28, -1.77]), an ~2% reduction in FMD. FMD reductions were larger among normal weight individuals, males, those with a cardio-metabolic disorder, those with elevated baseline FMD, and individuals with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline. Macronutrient meal ingestion significantly reduced FMD, an effect that was moderated by body mass index, sex and two-way interactions between disease status and both baseline FMD and baseline blood glucose levels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health