Endothelin, sex and hypertension

Rita C. Tostes, Zuleica B. Fortes, Glaucia E. Callera, Augusto C. Montezano, Rhian M. Touyz, R Clinton Webb, Maria Helena C. Carvalho

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The ETs (endothelins) comprise a family of three 21-amino-acid peptides (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and 31-amino-acid ETs (ET-1 1-31 , ET-2 1-31 and ET-3 1-31 ). ET-1 is synthesized from a biologically inactive precursor, big ET-1, by ECEs (ET-converting enzymes). The actions of ET-1 are mediated through activation of the G-protein-coupled ET A and ET B receptors, which are found in a variety of cells in the cardiovascular and renal systems. ET-1 has potent vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, proinflammatory and antinatriuretic properties, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of cardiovascular diseases. Overexpression of ET-1 has been consistently described in salt-sensitive models of hypertension and in models of renal failure, and has been associated with disease progression. Sex differences are observed in many aspects of mammalian cardiovascular function and pathology. Hypertension, as well as other cardiovascular diseases, is more common in men than in women of similar age. In experimental models of hypertension, males develop an earlier and more severe form of hypertension than do females. Although the reasons for these differences are not well established, the effects of gonadal hormones on arterial, neural and renal mechanisms that control blood pressure are considered contributing factors. Sex differences in the ET-1 pathway, with males displaying higher ET-1 levels, greater ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor and enhanced pressor responses in comparison with females, are addressed in the present review. Sex-associated differences in the number and function of ET B receptors appear to be particularly important in the specific characteristics of hypertension between females and males. Although the gonadal hormones modulate some of the differences in the ET pathway in the cardiovascular system, a better understanding of the exact mechanisms involved in sex-related differences in this peptidergic system is needed. With further insights into these differences, we may learn that men and women could require different antihypertensive regimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-97
Number of pages13
JournalClinical Science
Volume114
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008

Fingerprint

Endothelins
Endothelin-1
Hypertension
Sex Characteristics
Endothelin-2
Endothelin-3
Endothelin B Receptors
Gonadal Hormones
Vasoconstrictor Agents
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular Diseases
Kidney
Amino Acids
GTP-Binding Proteins
Antihypertensive Agents
Renal Insufficiency
Disease Progression
Theoretical Models
Salts
Pathology

Keywords

  • 17β-oestradiol
  • Arterial hypertension
  • End-organ damage
  • Endothelin
  • Endothelin receptor
  • Sex
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Tostes, R. C., Fortes, Z. B., Callera, G. E., Montezano, A. C., Touyz, R. M., Webb, R. C., & Carvalho, M. H. C. (2008). Endothelin, sex and hypertension. Clinical Science, 114(1-2), 85-97. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20070169

Endothelin, sex and hypertension. / Tostes, Rita C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.; Callera, Glaucia E.; Montezano, Augusto C.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Webb, R Clinton; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.

In: Clinical Science, Vol. 114, No. 1-2, 01.01.2008, p. 85-97.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Tostes, RC, Fortes, ZB, Callera, GE, Montezano, AC, Touyz, RM, Webb, RC & Carvalho, MHC 2008, 'Endothelin, sex and hypertension', Clinical Science, vol. 114, no. 1-2, pp. 85-97. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20070169
Tostes RC, Fortes ZB, Callera GE, Montezano AC, Touyz RM, Webb RC et al. Endothelin, sex and hypertension. Clinical Science. 2008 Jan 1;114(1-2):85-97. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20070169
Tostes, Rita C. ; Fortes, Zuleica B. ; Callera, Glaucia E. ; Montezano, Augusto C. ; Touyz, Rhian M. ; Webb, R Clinton ; Carvalho, Maria Helena C. / Endothelin, sex and hypertension. In: Clinical Science. 2008 ; Vol. 114, No. 1-2. pp. 85-97.
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