Factorial and Item-Level Invariance of an Emotional Intelligence Scale Across Groups of International Students

Chuang Wang, Do Hong Kim, Kok Mun Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


This study examined the factorial and item-level invariance of Wong and Law's emotional intelligence scale (WLEIS) in a sample of 375 international students in U.S. universities. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were employed at the test and item level, respectively. International students from three regions were of interest: Far East Asia, India, and Europe. A single group CFA was conducted, and the model was found to fit for each group. The factorial invariance between the groups was tested through three models with cumulative constraints. The results suggest that the WLEIS is a viable emotional intelligence measure when applied to this student population. Students from different cultures shared similar pattern of EI. The DIF analysis further revealed that 14 out of 16 items functioned similarly between Far East Asian students and Indian students, while all the items functioned similarly between Far East Asian and European students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-170
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychoeducational Assessment
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2012
Externally publishedYes



  • differential item functioning
  • emotional intelligence
  • factorial invariance
  • international students

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychology(all)

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