Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children

Mediation Models

Monika M.K. Stojek, Amanda K. Montoya, Christopher Drescher, Andrew Newberry, Zain Sultan, Celestine F. Williams, Norman K. Pollock, Catherine Lucy Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition.

RESULTS: Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17).

CONCLUSIONS: SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65S-73S
JournalPublic health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)
Volume132
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017

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Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Cognition
Depression
Exercise
Neurobehavioral Manifestations
Physical Fitness
Sleep
Cross-Sectional Studies
Parents
Pediatrics

Keywords

  • cognitive functioning
  • depression
  • pediatric obesity
  • physical fitness
  • sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children : Mediation Models. / Stojek, Monika M.K.; Montoya, Amanda K.; Drescher, Christopher; Newberry, Andrew; Sultan, Zain; Williams, Celestine F.; Pollock, Norman K.; Davis, Catherine Lucy.

In: Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), Vol. 132, No. 2, 01.11.2017, p. 65S-73S.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning.METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition.RESULTS: Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95{\%} CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95{\%} CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95{\%} CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95{\%} CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95{\%} CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95{\%} CI, -0.01 to -0.17).CONCLUSIONS: SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.",
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AB - OBJECTIVES: We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning.METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition.RESULTS: Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17).CONCLUSIONS: SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.

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