Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children: Mediation Models

Monika M.K. Stojek, Amanda K. Montoya, Christopher F. Drescher, Andrew Newberry, Zain Sultan, Celestine F. Williams, Norman K. Pollock, Catherine L. Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition.

RESULTS: Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17).

CONCLUSIONS: SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65S-73S
JournalPublic health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)
Volume132
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017

Keywords

  • cognitive functioning
  • depression
  • pediatric obesity
  • physical fitness
  • sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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