Impact of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis on infectious-related outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation

Amber B. Clemmons, Arpita S. Gandhi, Benjamin Albrecht, Stephanie Jacobson, Jeremy Mark Pantin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Patients immediately post-hematopoietic cell transplantation are at high risk for bacteremia. Judicious prophylactic antimicrobial utilization must balance anticipated benefits (reduction infections) versus risk (bacterial resistance, Clostridium difficile). Objective: To compare infectious outcomes (primary: incidence bacteremia; secondary: febrile neutropenia, C. difficile, susceptibility of bacteremia, time to discharge and 30-day mortality) between hematopoietic cell transplantation who received fluoroquinolone prophylaxis to those who did not. Methods: A local institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted on all hematopoietic cell transplantation patients (n = 171) comparing those who received fluoroquinolone prophylaxis (n = 105) to those who did not (n = 66). Data included infectious outcomes and mortality for the first 30 days post-hematopoietic cell transplantation. Chi-squared was performed for categorical variables (GraphPad Software Inc., 2015). Secondary analysis compared outcomes within autologous and allogeneic sub-groups. Results: Bacteremia was significantly lower for the overall cohort receiving fluoroquinolone (median duration eight days) versus those without fluoroquinolone (15.2% vs. 31.8%; P < 0.01). No difference was seen in C. difficile infection (P = 0.81) or 30-day mortality (2.9% vs. 4.5%; P = 0.67). In the autologous sub-group (n = 115), bacteremia was significantly lower in the fluoroquinolone cohort (8.5% vs. 27.3%; P = 0.0069), while no differences were seen in C. difficile infection (P = 1) or 30-day mortality (P = 1). In the allogeneic sub-group (n = 56), there was no difference between those with and without fluoroquinolone in bacteremia (29.4% vs. 40.9%; P = 0.4) or C. difficile (P = 0.72); however, there was a trend toward improved 30-day mortality (2.9% vs. 9.1%; P = 0.55). Conclusions: Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis reduces incidence of bacteremia in autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation without increasing C. difficile after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-332
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Keywords

  • Bacterial infections
  • bone marrow transplantation
  • fluoroquinolone
  • prophylaxis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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