Metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes have profound effects on cerebral circulation. These diseases not only affect the architecture of cerebral blood arteries causing adverse remodeling, pathological neovascularization, and vasoregression but also alter the physiology of blood vessels resulting in compromised myogenic reactivity, neurovascular uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction. Coupled with the disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, changes in blood flow and microbleeds into the brain rapidly occur. This overview is organized into sections describing cerebrovascular architecture, physiology, and BBB in these diseases. In each section, we review these properties starting with larger arteries moving into smaller vessels. Where information is available, we review in the order of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We also tried to include information on biological variables such as the sex of the animal models noted since most of the information summarized was obtained using male animals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)