Infant locomotive development and its association with adult blood pressure

Demetris Pillas, Marika Kaakinen, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Gopalakrishnan Netuveli, Alina Rodriguez, Erik Fung, Tuija H. Tammelin, David Blane, Iona Y. Millwood, Rebecca Hardy, Ulla Sovio, Anneli Pouta, Laila Arnesdatter Hopstock, Anna Liisa Hartikainen, Jaana Laitinen, Sarianna Vaara, Anokhi Ali Khan, Kwong Yew Raymond Chong, Paul Elliott, Marjo Riitta Jarvelin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Evidence from animal models suggests that locomotion and blood pressure share common neurophysiological regulatory systems. As a result of this common regulation, we hypothesized that the development of locomotion in human infants would be associated with blood pressure levels in adulthood. The study sample comprised 4,347 individuals with measures of locomotive and non-locomotive neuromotor development in infancy and adult blood pressure levels within a longitudinal birth cohort study, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Later development in all three stages of locomotive development during infancy was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at age 31. For age of walking without support, 0.34 (95 % CI 0.07 to 0.60)-mm Hg higher SBP and 0.38 (95 % CI 0.15 to 0.62)-mm Hg higher DBP were estimated for each month of later achievement (P = 0.012 for SBP; P = 0.001 for DBP). No association was identified for non-locomotive neuromotor development. Conclusion: These results highlight the positive sequelae of advanced locomotive development during infancy, suggesting that the common regulatory systems between locomotion and blood pressure may influence the development of raised blood pressure over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1309-1317
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Issue number10
StatePublished - Sep 12 2014


  • Blood pressure
  • Child development
  • Cohort studies
  • Epidemiology
  • Infancy
  • Neurodevelopment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Infant locomotive development and its association with adult blood pressure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this