Light Chain Predominant Intact Immunoglobulin Monoclonal Gammopathy Disorders: Shorter Survival in Light Chain Predominant Multiple Myelomas

Gurmukh Singh, Hongyan Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A proportion of intact immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing multiple myelomas (MMs) was observed to secrete much higher amounts of free light chains (LCs) than usual. OBJECTIVES: To determine the change point between usual and LC-predominant intact Ig-secreting MMs and other monoclonal gammopathic manifestations and the biological significance of the observation. METHODS: We conducted retrospective examination of laboratory findings in 386 MM, 27 smoldering MM, and 179 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) cases that secreted intact Igs. We recorded the highest levels of involved serum free LC, highest ratio of involved to uninvolved LC, highest concentration of involved LC per g of monoclonal Ig, and highest value for ratio of involved to uninvolved LCs divided by the monoclonal Ig concentration. Each data set was sorted into kappa- and lambda LC-associated lesions. Length of time, in months, between diagnosis and last contact with the patients having myeloma was recorded. RESULTS: Change point analysis of data revealed a subgroup of cases with distinctly higher levels of free LCs. In myelomas, including plasma cell leukemias, 16.4% of myelomas with kappa LCs and 22.3% of myelomas with lambda LCs, the LC secretion was distinctly higher than in the remaining cases, by a combination of 4 parameters, listed herein. Corresponding figures for smoldering myeloma (SMM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) were 12.5, 27.3, 3.8, and 6.8, respectively. Ten of the 13 (77%) cases of plasma cell leukemia) and all cases of IgD myeloma (n = 4) showed excess secretion of serum free LCs. Among IgG and IgA myelomas, including plasma cell leukemias, the LC-predominant lesions had shorter survival, by an average of 22.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 18.4% of MMs, including plasma cell leukemias, secrete distinctly higher amounts of serum free LCs than other intact Ig-secreting myelomas and confer significantly lower survival. Quantification of monoclonal serum free LCs may be useful in this subgroup in monitoring progress and potentially in ascertaining minimal residual disease. The findings also stress the need for separate criteria for kappa and lambda LC associated monoclonal gammopathic manifestations. The significantly shorter survival of patients with LC-predominant myelomas warrants consideration in prospective trials of treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)390-398
Number of pages9
JournalLaboratory medicine
Volume52
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

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