The provision of appropriate nutritional support is an essential part of the primary and adjunctive management of many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in neonatology and pediatrics. Few conditions in neonatology pose as great a challenge as intestinal failure or short bowel syndrome (SBS). The latter, SBS, is a complex disorder affecting normal intestinal physiology with nutritional, metabolic and infectious consequences. It is a result of the alteration of intestinal digestion and absorption following extensive bowel resection. Medical management of SBS is a very labor-intensive problem. Nutritional support and monitoring are of paramount importance, and long-term morbidity and mortality will depend on recognition and careful management of associated complications. With the increased use of intestine or intestine–liver transplant, maintaining these infants in good ‘health’ to allow transplantation will go a long way in achieving good long-term outcomes.