Extracellular vesicles from stem cells or progenitor cells are novel therapeutic systems for acute kidney injury. With exosomes (the smallest class of extracellular vesicles), Viñas et al. successfully rescued ischemic injured kidney. MicroRNA-486-5p, the crucial factor specifically delivered by exosomes to kidney, ameliorates the injury by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog and inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis. In this commentary, we discuss the potential underlying mechanism and the pivotal impact of their study on extracellular vesicle therapy.
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