Objectives: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique used to assess superficial atherosclerotic plaque morphology. Utility of OCT may be enhanced by contrast agents targeting molecular mediators of inflammation. Methods and results: Microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO; 1 and 4.5μm diameter) in suspension were visualized and accurately quantified using a clinical optical coherence tomography system. Bound to PECAM-1 on a plane of cultured endothelial cells under static conditions, 1μm MPIO were also readily detected by OCT. To design a molecular contrast probe that would bind activated endothelium under conditions of shear stress, we quantified the expression (basal vs. TNF-activated; moleculesμm -2) of VCAM-1 (not detected vs. 16±1); PECAM-1 (132±6 vs. 198±10) and E-selectin (not detected vs. 46±0.6) using quantitative flow cytometry. We then compared the retention of antibody-conjugated MPIO targeting each of these molecules plus a combined VCAM-1 and E-selectin (E+V) probe across a range of physiologically relevant shear stresses. E+V MPIO were consistently retained with highest efficiency (P<0.001) and at a density that provided conspicuous contrast effects on OCT pullback. Conclusion: Microparticles of iron oxide were detectable using a clinical OCT system. Assessment of binding under flow conditions recommended an approach that targeted both E-selectin and VCAM-1. Bound to HUVEC under conditions of flow, targeted 1 μm E + V MPIO were readily identified on OCT pullback. Molecular imaging with OCT may be feasible in vivo using antibody targeted MPIO.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2011|
- Molecular imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine