Elevated circulatory levels of many blood coagulation factors are known to be a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis in humans. Here we report the first direct demonstration of a close association between elevated circulatory factor IX levels in mice with thrombosis as well as myocardial fibrosis. Transgenic mice overexpressing human factor IX at persistently high levels died at much younger ages than their cohorts expressing lower levels, or nontransgenic control animals. The median survival age of animals was inversely related to the circulatory levels of human factor IX. Prematurely dying animals had focal fibrotic lesions predominantly present in the left ventricular myocardium, and vasculatures in these lesions showed fibrin deposition. Thromboemboli were also present in other organs, including lung and brain. These observations support the hypothesis that persistently high circulatory levels of factor IX are a risk factor not only for thrombosis and/or thromboembolism, but also for myocardial fibrosis mimicking human myocardial infarction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology