Neuroimaging and biomarkers in functional gastrointestinal disorders: What the scientists and clinicians need to know about basic neuroimaging, biomarkers, microbiome, gut and brain interactions

Jennifer S. Labus, Gustinna Tun, Lisa A. Kilpatrick, Satish S.C. Rao, Emeran A. Mayer, Kirsten Tillisch

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system involving the autonomic nervous system, immune system, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Visceral afferent signals from the gut are modulated by cognitive and affective circuits at the brain level and through the descending modulatory pathways a communication loop is created that is capable of changing and regulating gut function and symptoms. In this chapter we review common functional, structural and molecular brain imaging techniques that are used to investigate central nervous system alterations in irritable bowel syndrome, the most common disorder of gut- brain interactions. We review specific alterations associated with symptom presentations and examine their molecular basis both in health and irritable bowel syndrome. We also describe sex-related differences and the emerging link between the brain, the gut and the microbiome as well as the current status of neuroimaging and gastrointestinal disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical and Basic Neurogastroenterology and Motility
PublisherElsevier
Pages31-61
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)9780128130377
ISBN (Print)9780128130384
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Brain
  • Brain-gut
  • Gut irritable bowel syndrome
  • Microbiome
  • Neuroimaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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