p38 MAP kinase inhibition ameliorates cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice

Ganesan Ramesh, W. Brian Reeves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

198 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cisplatin is an important chemotherapeutic agent but can cause acute renal injury. Part of this acute renal injury is mediated through tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The pathway through which cisplatin mediates the production of TNF-α and injury is not known. Cisplatin activates p38 MAPK and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. p38 MAPK activation leads to increased production of TNF-α in ischemic injury and in macrophages. However, little is known concerning the role of p38 MAPK in cisplatin-induced renal injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of cisplatin on p38 MAPK activity and the role of p38 MAPK in mediating cisplatin-induced TNF-α production and renal injury. In vitro, cisplatin caused a dose-dependent activation of p38 MAPK in proximal tubule cells. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activation led to inhibition of TNF-α production. In vivo, mice treated with a single dose of cisplatin (20 mg/kg body wt) developed severe renal dysfunction at 72 h [blood urea nitrogen (BUN): 154 ± 34 mg/dl, creatinine: 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/dl], which was accompanied by an increase in kidney p38 MAPK activity and an increase in infiltrating leukocytes. However, animals treated with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SKF-86002 along with cisplatin showed less renal dysfunction (BUN: 55 ± 14 mg/dl, creatinine: 0.3 ± 0.02 mg/dl, P < 0.05), less severe histological damage, and fewer leukocytes compared with cisplatin+vehicle-treated animals. Serum levels of TNF-α, sTNFRI, and sTNFRII also increased significantly in cisplatin-treated mice compared with SKF-86002-treated mice (P < 0.05). Kidney mRNA levels of TNF-α were significantly increased in cisplatin-treated mice compared with either SKF-86002- or saline-treated animals. The hydroxyl radical scavenger DMTU (100 mg·kg body wt-1·day-1) prevented the activation of p38 MAPK by cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo. DMTU also completely prevented cisplatin-induced renal injury (BUN: 140 ± 27 vs. 22 ± 2 mg/dl, P < 0.005) and the increase in serum TNF-α (33 ± 7 vs. 4 ± 2 pg/ml, P < 0.005) and kidney TNF-α mRNA in vivo. We conclude that hydroxyl radicals, either directly or indirectly, activate p38 MAPK and that p38 MAPK plays an important role in mediating cisplatin-induced acute renal injury and inflammation, perhaps through production of TNF-α.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)F166-F174
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology
Volume289
Issue number1 58-1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2005

Keywords

  • Acute renal failure
  • Antioxidants
  • Cytokines
  • Gene expression
  • Protein kinases
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Urology

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