Purpose: Sapacitabine is an oral deoxycytidine nucleoside analog with a unique mechanism of action that is different from cytarabine. Patients and Methods: To define the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of sapacitabine given orally twice daily for 7 days every 3 to 4 weeks, or twice daily for 3 days for 2 weeks (days 1 through 3 and days 8 through 10) every 3 to 4 weeks, in refractory-relapse acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A total of 47 patients were treated in the phase I study that used a classical 3 + 3 design. Sapacitabine was escalated from 75 to 375 mg twice daily for 7 days (n = 35) and from 375 to 475 mg twice daily for 3 days on days 1 through 3 and days 8 through 10. Results: The DLTs with both schedules were gastrointestinal. The MTDs were 375 mg twice daily for 7 days and 425 mg twice daily for 3 days on days 1 through 3 and days 8 through 10. The recommended phase II single-agent dose schedules were 325 mg twice daily for 7 days and 425 mg twice daily for 3 days on days 1 through 3 and days 8 through 10. Responses were observed in 13 patients (28%); four were complete responses, and nine were marrow complete responses. Conclusion: Sapacitabine is a new, safely administered, oral deoxycytidine analog that has encouraging activity in leukemia and MDS. Phase II studies are ongoing.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research