Children's plasma metabolome, especially lipidome, reflects gene regulation and dietary exposures, heralding the development of islet autoantibodies (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study enrolled 8,676 newborns by screening of HLA-DR-DQ genotypes at six clinical centers in four countries, profiled metabolome, and measured concentrations of ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids following birth until IA seroconversion under a nested case-control design. We grouped children having an initial autoantibody only against insulin (IAA-first) or GAD (GADA-first) by unsupervised clustering of temporal lipidome, identifying a subgroup of children having early onset of each initial autoantibody, i.e., IAA-first by 12 months and GADA-first by 21 months, consistent with population-wide early seroconversion age. Differential analysis showed that infants having reduced plasma ascorbic acid and cholesterol experienced IAA-first earlier, while early onset of GADA-first was preceded by reduced sphingomyelins at infancy. Plasma 25(OH)D prior to either autoantibody was lower in T1D progressors compared with nonprogressors, with simultaneous lower diglycerides, lysophosphatidylcholines, triglycerides, and alanine before GADA-first. Plasma ascorbic acid and 25(OH)D at infancy were lower in HLA-DR3/DR4 children among IA case subjects but not in matched control subjects, implying gene expression dysregulation of circulating vitamins as latent signals for IA or T1D progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism