Necrotic lesions and necrotic cell death characterize severe autoimmune nephritides, and contribute to local inflammation and to progression of the disease. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a DNA repair enzyme, is involved in the induction of necrosis and is a key player in the acute and chronic inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that PARP-1 controls the severity of nephritis by mediating the induction of necrosis in the kidney. We used lupus and anti-glomerular basement membrane models of nephritis to determine the effects of PARP-1 on the inflammatory response in the kidney. We show in this study that PARP-1 is indeed activated during the course of glomerulonephritis. We also show that the absence of PARP-1 or its pharmacological inhibition results in milder nephritis, with lower blood urea nitrogen levels, reduced necrotic lesions, and higher survival rates. The relevance of PARP-1 showed a strong male sex specificity, and treatment of male mice with 17β-estradiol prolonged their survival during the course of nephritis. PARP-1 also regulated TNF-α expression and up-regulation of adhesion molecules, further supporting a role of PARP-1 in the inflammatory process within the kidney. Our results demonstrate that PARP-1 activation and consequent necrotic cell death play an important role in the pathogenesis of male nephritis, and suggest that PARP-1 can be a novel therapeutic target in glomerulonephritis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy