Prediction of headache severity (density and functional impact) after traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal multicenter study

William C. Walker, Jennifer H. Marwitz, Amber R. Wilk, Jessica McKinney Ketchum, Jeanne M. Hoffman, Allen W. Brown, Sylvia Lucas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Headache (HA) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common, but predictors and time course are not well established, particularly after moderate to severe TBI. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of HA severity post-TBI was conducted on 450 participants at seven participating rehabilitation centers. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMMs) were used to model repeated measures (months 3, 6, and 12 post-TBI) of two outcomes: HA density (a composite of frequency, duration, and intensity) and HA disruptions to activities of daily living (ADL). Results: Although HA density and ADL disruptions were nominally highest during the first three months post-TBI, neither showed significant changes over time. At all time points, history of pre-injury migraine was by far the strongest predictor of both HA density and ADL disruptions (odds ratio (OR)=8.0 and OR=7.2, averaged across time points, respectively). Furthermore, pre-injury non-migraine HA (at three and six months post-TBI), penetrating-type TBI (at six months post- TBI), and female sex (at six and 12 months post-TBI) were each associated with an increase in the odds of a more severe HA density. Severity of TBI (post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration) was not associated with either outcome. Conclusion: Individuals with HA at three months after moderate-severe TBI do not improve over the ensuing nine months with respect to HA density or ADL disruptions. Those with pre-injury HA, particularly of migraine type, are at greatest risk for HA post-TBI. Other independent risk factors are penetrating-type TBI and, to a lesser degree and postacutely only, female sex. Individuals with these risk factors should be monitored and considered for aggressive early intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)998-1008
Number of pages11
JournalCephalalgia
Volume33
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013

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Multicenter Studies
Headache
Longitudinal Studies
Activities of Daily Living
Penetrating Head Injuries
Migraine Disorders
Traumatic Brain Injury
Wounds and Injuries
Odds Ratio
Rehabilitation Centers
Amnesia
Cohort Studies

Keywords

  • Headache
  • head injury
  • outcomes
  • post-traumatic headache
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Walker, W. C., Marwitz, J. H., Wilk, A. R., Ketchum, J. M., Hoffman, J. M., Brown, A. W., & Lucas, S. (2013). Prediction of headache severity (density and functional impact) after traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal multicenter study. Cephalalgia, 33(12), 998-1008. https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102413482197

Prediction of headache severity (density and functional impact) after traumatic brain injury : A longitudinal multicenter study. / Walker, William C.; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Wilk, Amber R.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney; Hoffman, Jeanne M.; Brown, Allen W.; Lucas, Sylvia.

In: Cephalalgia, Vol. 33, No. 12, 01.09.2013, p. 998-1008.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Walker, WC, Marwitz, JH, Wilk, AR, Ketchum, JM, Hoffman, JM, Brown, AW & Lucas, S 2013, 'Prediction of headache severity (density and functional impact) after traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal multicenter study', Cephalalgia, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 998-1008. https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102413482197
Walker, William C. ; Marwitz, Jennifer H. ; Wilk, Amber R. ; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney ; Hoffman, Jeanne M. ; Brown, Allen W. ; Lucas, Sylvia. / Prediction of headache severity (density and functional impact) after traumatic brain injury : A longitudinal multicenter study. In: Cephalalgia. 2013 ; Vol. 33, No. 12. pp. 998-1008.
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AB - Background: Headache (HA) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common, but predictors and time course are not well established, particularly after moderate to severe TBI. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of HA severity post-TBI was conducted on 450 participants at seven participating rehabilitation centers. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMMs) were used to model repeated measures (months 3, 6, and 12 post-TBI) of two outcomes: HA density (a composite of frequency, duration, and intensity) and HA disruptions to activities of daily living (ADL). Results: Although HA density and ADL disruptions were nominally highest during the first three months post-TBI, neither showed significant changes over time. At all time points, history of pre-injury migraine was by far the strongest predictor of both HA density and ADL disruptions (odds ratio (OR)=8.0 and OR=7.2, averaged across time points, respectively). Furthermore, pre-injury non-migraine HA (at three and six months post-TBI), penetrating-type TBI (at six months post- TBI), and female sex (at six and 12 months post-TBI) were each associated with an increase in the odds of a more severe HA density. Severity of TBI (post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration) was not associated with either outcome. Conclusion: Individuals with HA at three months after moderate-severe TBI do not improve over the ensuing nine months with respect to HA density or ADL disruptions. Those with pre-injury HA, particularly of migraine type, are at greatest risk for HA post-TBI. Other independent risk factors are penetrating-type TBI and, to a lesser degree and postacutely only, female sex. Individuals with these risk factors should be monitored and considered for aggressive early intervention.

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