Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions

A Summary of the Evidence

Jeff T Wilkins, Jacqueline Sequoia

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells. Probiotic effectiveness can be species-, dose-, and disease-specific, and the duration of therapy depends on the clinical indication. There is high-quality evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Conversely, there is evidence that probiotics are not effective for acute pancreatitis and Crohn disease. Probiotics are safe for infants, children, adults, and older patients, but caution is advised in immunologically vulnerable populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-178
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican family physician
Volume96
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

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Probiotics
Diarrhea
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Bacteria
Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Saccharomyces
Bifidobacterium
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Clostridium difficile
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Family Physicians
Lactobacillus
Acute Disease
Vulnerable Populations
Ulcerative Colitis
Crohn Disease
Pancreatitis
Gastrointestinal Tract
Maintenance
Guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Family Practice

Cite this

Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions : A Summary of the Evidence. / Wilkins, Jeff T; Sequoia, Jacqueline.

In: American family physician, Vol. 96, No. 3, 01.08.2017, p. 170-178.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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