Objective: To determine whether differences exist in employment rates between whites, blacks, and Hispanics with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 1, 2, or 5 years after injury; to determine whether changes occur in postinjury employment rates over time for whites, blacks, and Hispanics; and to determine whether changes in postinjury employment rates over time are different for whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Setting: Sixteen TBI Model System centers. Patients or Other Participants: Persons (3,940) with moderate-to-severe TBI who self-reported as white, black, or Hispanic. Main Outcome Measurements: Employment status dichotomized as competitively employed versus not competitively employed. Results: The odds of competitive employment were significantly greater for whites versus blacks at 1, 2, and 5 years after injury and were greater for whites versus Hispanics at 1 and 2 years after injury; whites and Hispanics did not differ significantly at 5 years after injury; and blacks and Hispanics were not significantly different at 1, 2, or 5 years after injury. The odds of employment increased significantly from 1-2, 2-5, and 1-5 years after injury for whites and Hispanics, whereas the odds of employment increased from 2-5 and 1-5 years after injury for blacks, with no significant difference between 1 and 2 years after injury for blacks. No evidence was found that the changes in employment rates over time were significantly different among the race and/or ethnicity groups. Conclusion: Future researchers should seek to identify causative factors for employment disparities, and rehabilitation professionals should work to mitigate inequalities in employment among racial and ethnic groups with TBI.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Clinical Neurology