The prostate cancer (PCa) genome is characterized by deletions of chromosome 8p21-22 region that increase significantly with tumor grade and are associated with poor prognosis. We proposed and validated a novel, paradigm-shifting hypothesis that this region is associated with a set of microRNA genes - miR-3622, miR-3622b, miR-383 - that are lost in PCa and play important mechanistic roles in PCa progression and metastasis. Extending our hypothesis, in this study, we evaluated the role of a microRNA gene located in chromosome 8p - miR-4288 - by employing clinical samples and cell lines. Our data suggests that (i) miR-4288 is widely downregulated in primary prostate tumors and cell lines; (ii) miR-4288 expression is lost in metastatic castration-resistant PCa; (ii) miR-4288 downregulation is race-related PCa alteration that is prevalent in Caucasian patients and not in African Americans; (iii) in Caucasians, miR-4288 was found to be associated with increasing tumor grade and high serum prostate-specific antigen, suggesting that miR-4288 downregulation/loss may be associated with tumor progression specifically in Caucasians; (iv) miR-4288 possess significant potential as a molecular biomarker to predict aggressiveness/metastasis; and (v) miR-4288 is anti-proliferative, is anti-invasive and inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; and (vi) miR-4288 directly represses expression of metastasis/invasion-associated genes MMP16 and ROCK1. Thus, the present study demonstrates a tumor suppressor role for a novel miRNA located with a frequently lost region in PCa, strengthening our hypothesis that this locus is causally related to PCa disease progression via loss of microRNA genes. Our study suggests that miR-4288 may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target, particularly in Caucasians.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research