Bosutinib is a Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for adults with newly-diagnosed Philadelphia positive chronic myeloid leukemia or with resistant/intolerant disease. We report the final results of a phase I/II study of second-line bosutinib in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients after imatinib failure (n=284). Median follow up and treatment durations were 54.8 (range 0.6-96.3) and 25.6 (0.2-96.3) months, respectively. At years 2 and 5, 54% and 40% of patients, respectively, remained on bosutinib. Cumulative major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response rates (newly-attained or maintained from baseline) were 58% and 46%, respectively, by year 2 and 60% and 50% by year 5. Kaplan-Meier probability of maintaining major and complete cytogenetic response was 76% and 78%, respectively, at year 2 and 71% and 69% at year 5. Cumulative incidence of ontreatment disease progression/death was similar at years 5 (19%) and 2 (15%); Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 91% at year 2 and 84% at year 5. Of 169 patients who had discontinued bosutinib by year 5, 38 did so after year 2, most commonly for disease progression (n=11). Most adverse events initially occurred within two years. Overall, gastrointestinal events were the most common (diarrhea 86%, nausea 46%, vomiting 37%); the most common grade 3/4 toxicity was thrombocytopenia (25%). None of the 4 on-treatment deaths in years 3-5 were related to bosutinib. Bosutinib demonstrated durable efficacy and manageable toxicity through year 5 confirming its importance in the treatment of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant/intolerant to prior imatinib. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 00261846.
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