Substance Use

Caroline R. McKinnon, Deborah Johnson, Linda Stephan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


In the United States and other high-income countries, substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the top causes of disease burden, especially among young people ages 10–24 years. This chapter examines early use of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs and the misuse of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and other psychoactive substances. Risk and protective factors for SUDs are examined and linked to screening, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. These include evidence-based interventions that can be delivered by advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in primary care settings and criteria to use when referring for specialty treatment. APRNs should be aware of several important aspects of the clinical presentation of SUDs in children and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationChild and Adolescent Behavioral Health
Subtitle of host publicationA Resource for Advanced Practice Psychiatric and Primary Care Practitioners in Nursing
Number of pages28
ISBN (Electronic)9781119487593
ISBN (Print)9781119487579
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • clinical presentation
  • evidence-based interventions
  • over-the-counter drugs
  • primary care settings
  • protective factors
  • psychoactive substances
  • risk factors
  • substance use disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


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