Heat-shock transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate transcription of heat-shock proteins as well as other genes whose promoters contain heat-shock elements. There are at least five Hsfs in mammalian cells, Hsf1, Hsf2, Hsf3, Hsf4, and Hsfy. To understand the physiological roles of Hsf1, Hsf2, and Hsf4 in vivo, we generated knockout mouse lines for these factors. In this chapter, we describe the design of the targeting vectors, the plasmids used, and the successful generation of mice lacking the individual genes. We also briefly describe what we have learned about the physiological functions of these genes in vivo.