Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest in response to an array of cellular stresses. An important role for senescence has been shown for a number of pathophysiological conditions that include cardiovascular disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and diseases of the skin. However, whether senescence contributes to the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has not been studied in detail so far and the present review describes the recent research on this topic. We present an overview of the types of senescence, pathways of senescence, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), the role of mitochondria, and their functional implications along with antisenescent therapies. As a central mechanism, senescent cells can impact the surrounding tissue microenvironment via the secretion of a pool of bioactive molecules, termed the SASP. An updated summary of a number of new members of the ever-growing SASP family is presented. Further, we introduce the significance of mechanisms by which mitochondria may participate in the development of cellular senescence. Emerging evidence shows that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of the effects of senescent cells on their microenvironment. Based on recent studies, there is reasonable evidence that senescence could be a modifiable factor, and hence, it may be possible to delay age-related diseases by modulating basic aging mechanisms using SASP inhibitors/senolytic drugs. Thus, antisenescent therapies in aging and age-related diseases appear to have a promising potential.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology